Julius Caesar

Julius Caesar

Born: July 100 BC in Rome
Died: March 15, 44 BC (at age 55) in Curia of Pompey, Rome
Nationality: Roman
Famous For: Dictator of the Roman Republic

Julius Caesar was a famous Roman general, consul, statesman and author. He played a very important role in the events that led to the fall of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

Early Life and Career

Julius Caesar was born on July 13, 100 BC He was the nephew and a great companion of seven-time consul and army reformer Gainus Marious. Despite the ancient pedigree, his family was not very influential politically. However, they enjoyed some revival of their political fortunes. Julius’s father governed the province of Asia. In 85 BC, Julius’s father died and so at the age of only 16, Julius was made head of the family.

During this time, his uncle, Gaius Marius and Lucius Sulla, were at war. While Gaius and his friend, Licius Cinna, were in control of the city, Julius was made the new high priest of Jupiter. He married Conelia, Cinna’s daughter. However, Sulla won the battle and Caesar became a target. His inheritance and his dowry were taken away.

Julius later left Rome and joined the army. He won the Civic Crown. Sulla died in 78 BC and this gave Julius a bit of safety. He decided to return to Rome, where he was elected military tribune. He was later elected quaestor for 69 BC. In 62 BC, after serving praetor, he was appointed to govern Spain.

He was still in great debts and needed to clear them with his creditors before leaving. He therefore turned to one of Rome’s richest men. In Spain, he conquered two local tribes and was even hailed imperator by the troops.

Leadership in Power

In 60 BC, Julius Caesar sought election as consul for 59 BC along with two other candidates. The election was sordid, but Caesar won. He tried to be on good terms with Pompey and Crassus because the three men had the money and political power to control public business. Julius decided to propose a law that would help redistribute public lands to the poor. This proposal was supported by Pompey and Crassus.

Caesar went to Britain and while he was there, he tried again to secure Pompey’s support by offering his niece in marriage. However, Pompey declined this offer. In 53 BC, Crassus was killed and this lead to a failed invasion of the east. During this time, Rome was on the edge of civil war and Pompey was made sole consul. He married the daughter of Caesar’s political opponent.

In 52 BC, a great revolt erupted in Gaul. The revolt was led by Vercingetorix. Vercingetorix managed to defeat Caesar in a few engagements, but Caesar finally managed to defeat him, forcing him to surrender. Gaul was eventually conquered.

Caesar’s Final Days and Death

In 50 BC, Pompey led the senate in ordering Julius Caesar to disband his army and return to Rome. In Rome, he was appointed dictator and Mark Antony was his second in command. Julius assassinated his old friend Pompey. After his death, he got involved in the Egyptian civil war between the pharaoh, his sister, and the queen, Cleopatra. He decided to side with the queen and together they defeated Pharaoh’s army.

Julius Caesar was later assassinated on 44 BC.